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Journal of General Internal Medicine

By Nirav Shah and Jason Wang

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Journal Articles

Poverty and Community-Acquired Antimicrobial Resistance with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–Producing Organisms, Hyderabad, India

Nagamani Kammili, Jyothi Lakshmi, Anlu Xing, Afia Khan, Manisha Rani, Prasanthi Kolli, Anlu Xing, Douglas K. Owens
Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal , 2018

The decreasing effectiveness of antimicrobial agents is a global public health threat, yet risk factors for community-acquired antimicrobial resistance (CA-AMR) in low-income settings have not been clearly elucidated. Our aim was to identify risk factors for CA-AMR with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing organisms among urban-dwelling women in India. We collected microbiological and survey data in an observational study of primigravidae women in a public hospital in Hyderabad, India.

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Journal Articles

ACA Marketplace Premiums and Competition Among Hospitals and Physician Practices

Maria Polyakova, M. Kate Bundorf, Daniel P. Kessler, Laurence C. Baker
The American Journal of Managed Care , 2018

In this study published in the American Journal of Managed Care, the authors found that premiums for ACA Marketplace plans were higher in rating areas in which physician, hospital, and insurance markets were less competitive.

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Journal Articles

Robust relationship between air quality and infant mortality in Africa

Eran Bendavid, Jennifer Burney, Marshall Burke
Nature , 2018

Poor air quality is thought to be an important mortality risk factor globally, but there is little direct evidence from the developing world on how mortality risk varies with changing exposure to ambient particulate matter. Current global estimates apply exposure-response relationships that have been derived mostly from wealthy, mid-latitude countries to spatial population data, and these estimates remain unvalidated across large portions of the globe.

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Working Papers

Learning on the Job: Evidence from Physicians in Training

David C. Chan
Stanford University , 2018

Abstract: Learning on the job creates a tradeoff in team decisions: Workers with less knowledge have less to contribute to team decisions, but experiential learning may require that trainees also have a stake in decisions to learn. This paper studies learning and influence in team decisions among physicians trainees. Exploiting a discontinuity in relative experience, I find reduced-form evidence of influence due to seniority between trainees.

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Working Papers

Industry Input in Policymaking: Evidence from Medicare

David Chan, David C. Chan, Michael J. Dickstein
Stanford University , 2018

Abstract: In setting prices for physician services, Medicare solicits input from a committee that evaluates proposals from industry. We investigate whether this arrangement leads to prices biased toward the interests of committee members. We find that increasing a measure of affiliation between the committee and proposers by one standard deviation increases prices by 10%, demonstrating a pathway for regulatory capture. We then evaluate the effect of affiliation on the quality of information used in price-setting.

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Journal Articles

Is Single Payer the Answer for the US Health Care System?

Victor R. Fuchs
JAMA , 2018

The recent challenges to the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which has increased the number of individuals with health insurance in the United States but has had little effect on cost, has revived the debate about a single-payer health care system.

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Journal Articles

Drug Companies’ Liability for the Opioid Epidemic

Rebecca L. Haffejee, Michelle Mello
The New England Journal of Medicine , 2017

The opioid epidemic has claimed more than 300,000 lives in the United States since 20001

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Working Papers

Family Planning and Fertility Behavior: Evidence from Twentieth Century Malaysia

Kim Babiarz, Jiwon Lee, Grant Miller, Tey Nai Peng, Christine Valente
Center for Global Development , 2017

There is longstanding debate about the contribution of family planning programs to fertility decline. Studying the staggered introduction of family planning across Malaysia during the 1960s and 1970s, we find modest responses in fertility behavior. Higher (but not lower) parity birth hazards declined by one-quarter—but imply only a 5 percent decline in the overall annual probability of birth. Age at marriage rose by 0.48 years, but birth spacing conditional on this did not otherwise change.

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Journal Articles

Relationship between season of birth, temperature exposure, and later life wellbeing

Adam Isen, Maya Rossin-Slater, Reed Walker
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 2017

We study how exposure to extreme temperatures in early periods of child development is related to adult economic outcomes measured 30 y later. Our analysis uses administrative earnings records for over 12 million individuals born in the United States between 1969 and 1977, linked to fine-scale, daily weather data and location and date of birth.

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Journal Articles

Marketplace Plans Provide Risk Protection, But Actuarial Values Overstate Realized Coverage For Most Enrollees

Maria Polyakova, Lynn M. Hua, M. Kate Bundorf
Health Affairs , 2017

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has increased the number of Americans with health insurance. Yet many policy makers and consumers have questioned the value of Marketplace plan coverage because of the generally high levels of cost sharing. We simulated out-of-pocket spending for bronze, silver, or gold Marketplace plans (those having actuarial values of 60 percent, 70 percent, and 80 percent, respectively).

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Journal Articles

Validation of Risk Equations for Complications of Type 2 Diabetes (RECODe) Using Individual Participant Data From Diverse Longitudinal Cohorts in the U.S.

Sanjay Basu, Jeremy B. Sussman, Seth A. Berkowitz, Rodney A. Hayward, Alain G. Bertoni, Adolfo Correa, Stanford Mwasongwe, John S. Yudkin
American Diabetes Association , 2017
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Journal Articles

PCSK9 Inhibitors Economics and Policy

Mark A. Hlatky, Dhruv S. Kazi
Journal of the American College of Cardiology , 2017

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors substantially reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but it is presently unclear whether they also reduce mortality. The list prices of PCSK9 inhibitors in the United States (>$14,500 per year) are >100× higher than generic statins, and only a small fraction of their higher cost is likely to be recovered by prevention of cardiovascular events.

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Journal Articles

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Participation and Health Care Expenditures Among Low-Income Adults

Seth A. Berkowitz, Hilary K. Seligman, Joseph Rigdon, James B. Meigs, Sanjay Basu
JAMA Internal Medicine , 2017

Objective

To determine whether the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), which addresses food insecurity, can reduce health care expenditures.

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Journal Articles

Drug-Free Interventions to Reduce Pain or Opioid Consumption After Total Knee Arthroplasty A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Dario Tedesco, Davide Gori, Karishma Desai, Steven M. Asch, Ian R. Carroll, Catherine Curtin, Kathryn M. McDonald, Maria P. Fantini, Tina Hernandez-Boussard
JAMA Surgery , 2017

To systematically review and meta-analyze evidence of nonpharmacological interventions for postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty.

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Journal Articles

Social Isolation and Medicare Spending: Among Older Adults, Objective Isolation Increases Expenditures While Loneliness Does Not

Jonathan Shaw, Monica Farid, Claire Noel-Miller, Neesha Joseph, Ari Houser, Steven M. Asch, Jay Bhattacharya, Lynda Flowers
SAGE Journals , 2017

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of objective isolation and loneliness on Medicare spending and outcomes. Method: We linked Health and Retirement Study data to Medicare claims to analyze objective isolation (scaled composite of

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Working Papers

Family Ruptures, Stress, and the Mental Health of the Next Generation

Maya Rossin-Slater, Maya Rossin-Slater, Petra Persson
American Economic Review , 2017

This paper studies how in utero exposure to maternal stress from family ruptures affects later mental health. We find that prenatal exposure to the death of a maternal relative increases take-up of ADHD medications during childhood and anti-anxiety and depression medications in adulthood. Further, family ruptures during pregnancy depress birth outcomes and raise the risk of perinatal complications necessitating hospitalization. Our results suggest large welfare gains from preventing fetal stress from family ruptures and possibly from economically induced stressors such as unemployment.

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Journal Articles

High Levels Of Capitation Payments Needed To Shift Primary Care Toward Proactive Team And Nonvisit Care

Sanjay Basu, Russell S. Phillips, Zirui Song, Asaf Bitton, Bruce E. Landon
Health Affairs , 2017
Capitated payments in the form of fixed monthly payments to cover all of the costs associated with delivering primary care could encourage primary care practices to transform the way they deliver care. Using a microsimulation model incorporating data from 969 US practices, we sought to understand whether shifting to team- and non-visit-based care is financially sustainable for practices under traditional fee-for-service, capitated payment, or a mix of the two.
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Journal Articles

Tuskegee and the Health of Black Men

Marcella Alsan, Marianne Wanamaker
The Quarterly Journal of Economics , 2017

For forty years, the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male passively monitored hundreds of adult black males with syphilis despite the availability of effective treatment.

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Journal Articles

Childhood Illness and the Gender Gap in Adolescent Education in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Anlu Xing, Paul H. Wise, Gary L. Darmstadt, Eran Bendavid
Pediatrics , 2017

Achieving gender equality in education is an important development goal.  We tested the hypothesis that the gender gap in adolescent education is accentuated by illnesses among young children in the household.

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Journal Articles

The Evolving Story of Overlapping Surgery

Michelle Mello, Edward H. Livingston, Edward H. Livington
JAMA , 2017

In December 2015, a Boston Globe investigation of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) sparked investigations into concurrent and overlapping surgery. Overlapping surgery refers to operations performed by the same primary surgeon such that the start of one surgery overlaps with the end of another. A qualified practitioner finishes noncritical aspects of the first operation while the primary surgeon moves to the next operation.

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Journal Articles

Implementation science for ambulatory care safety: a novel method to develop context-sensitive interventions to reduce quality gaps in monitoring high-risk patients.

Kathryn M. McDonald, George Su, Sarah Lisker, Emily S. Patterson, Urmimala Sarkar
Implementation Science , 2017

Missed evidence-based monitoring in high-risk conditions (e.g., cancer) leads to delayed diagnosis. Current technological solutions fail to close this safety gap. In response, we aim to demonstrate a novel method to identify common vulnerabilities across clinics and generate attributes for context-flexible population-level monitoring solutions for widespread implementation to improve quality.

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Journal Articles

Ten years after the financial crisis: The long reach of austerity and its global impacts on health

Sanjay Basu, Megan Carney, Nora J. Kenworthy
Social Science & Medicine , 2017

The global financial crisis starting in 2007 prompted national governments around the world, and notably many within the European Union, to implement austerity measures. Similar to structural adjustment programs (SAPs) implemented throughout the developing world since the 1980s, much of the pressure to adopt and enforce austerity measures has been levied by global financial institutions such as the IMF.

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Journal Articles

Malaria control adds to the evidence for health aid effectiveness

Eran Bendavid
Public Library of Science , 2017

The new United States administration’s first budget proposal, previewed in March and released in May, 2017, includes deep cuts to foreign aid, cycling this thorny issue back into the American limelight.

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