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    Journal Article

    Mark R. Cullen, Michael Baiocchi, Karen Eggleston, Pooja Loftus, Victor R. Fuchs
    SSM - Population Health, 2016

    Sex differences in mortality vary over time and place as a function of social, health, and medical circumstances. The magnitude of these variations, and their response to large socioeconomic changes, suggest that biological differences cannot fully account for sex differences in survival. Drawing on a wide swath of mortality data across countries and over time, we develop a set of empiric observations with which any theory about excess male mortality and its correlates will have to contend.

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    Journal Article

    Matthew J. Spittal, David M. Studdert, Ron Paterson, Marie M. Bismark
    BioMed Central Medicine, 2016

    Background

    Medical boards and other practitioner boards aim to protect the public from unsafe practice. Previous research has examined disciplinary actions against doctors, but other professions (e.g., nurses and midwives, dentists, psychologists, pharmacists) remain understudied.

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    Journal Article

    The US Preventive Services Task Force, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, David C. Grossman, Susan J. Curry, Karina W. Davidson, John W. Epling, Jr., Francisco A. R. Garcia, Matthew W. Gillman, Alex R. Kemper, Alex H. Krist, Ann E. Kurth, Seth Landefeld, Michael LeFevre, Carol M. Mangione, Douglas K. Owens, Williams R. Phillips, Maureen G. Phibbs, Michael P. Pignone, Albert L. Siu
    Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 2016

    Importance  Elevations in levels of total, low-density lipoprotein, and non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and, to a lesser extent, elevated triglyceride levels are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease in adults.

    Objective  To update the 2007 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for lipid disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults.

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    Journal Article

    Shahana Parveen, M. Saiful Islam, Momtaz Begum, Mahbub-Ul Alam, Hossain M. S. Sazzad, Rebecca Sultana, Mahmudur Rahman, Emily S. Gurley, M. Jahangir Hossain, Stephen P. Luby
    BMC Public Health, 2016

    Background

    During a fatal Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak in Bangladesh, residents rejected biomedical explanations of NiV transmission and treatment and lost trust in the public healthcare system. Field anthropologists developed and communicated a prevention strategy to bridge the gap between the biomedical and local explanation of the outbreak.

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    Journal Article

    Maria Polyakova
    Journal of Health Economics, 2016

    Abstract:  Conventional wisdom suggests that if private health insurance plans compete alongside a public option, they may endanger the latter's financial stability by cream-skimming good risks. This paper argues that two factors may contribute to the extent of cream-skimming: (i) degree of horizontal differentiation between public and private options when preferences are heterogeneous; (ii) whether contract design encourages choice of private insurance before information about risk is revealed.

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    Journal Article

    Geoffrey T. Tso, Kaeli Yuen, Susana Martins, Samson W. Tu, Michael Ashcraft, Paul A. Heidenreich, Brian B. Hoffman, Mary K. Goldstein
    AMIA Joint Summits on Translational Science Proceedings, 2016

    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems with complex logic are being developed. Ensuring the quality of CDS is imperative, but there is no consensus on testing standards. We tested ATHENA-HTN CDS after encoding updated hypertension guidelines into the system. A logic flow and a complexity analysis of the encoding were performed to guide testing. 100 test cases were selected to test the major pathways in the CDS logic flow, and the effectiveness of the testing was analyzed. The encoding contained 26 decision points and 3120 possible output combinations.

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    Journal Article

    Cora L. Bernard, Margaret L. Brandeau, Keith Humphreys, Eran Bendavid, Mark Holodniy, Christopher Weyant, Douglas K. Owens, Jeremy Goldhaber-Fiebert
    Annals of Internal Medicine, 2016

    Background: The total population health benefits and costs of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States are unclear.

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and optimal delivery conditions of PrEP for PWID.

    Design: Empirically calibrated dynamic compartmental model.

    Data Sources: Published literature and expert opinion.

    Target Population: Adult U.S. PWID.

    Time Horizon: 20 years and lifetime.

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    Journal Article

    Joshua J. Mooney, David Weill, Jack H. Boyd, Mark R. Nicolls, Jay Bhattacharya, Gundeep S. Dhillon
    Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 2016

    Rationale: Although lung transplant recipient survival is better at higher volume centers, the effect of center volume on admission cost and early hospital readmission is unknown.

    Objectives: To understand the association between transplant center volume and recipient risk-adjusted transplant admission cost, in-hospital mortality, and early hospital readmission in lung transplant recipients.

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    Journal Article

    Elissa Z. Faro, C. Jason Wang, Suzette O. Oyeku
    American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2016

    Extensive variation exists in the follow-up of positive screens for sickle cell disease. Limited quality indicators exist to measure if the public health goals of screening—early initiation of treatment and enrollment to care—are being achieved. This manuscript focuses on the development of quality indicators related to the follow-up care for individuals identified with sickle cell disease and trait through screening processes. The authors used a modified Delphi method to develop the indicators.

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    Journal Article

    James V. Freeman, David W. Hutton, Geoffrey D. Barnes, Ruo P. Zhu, Douglas K. Owens, Alan M. Garber, Alan S. Go, Mark A. Hlatky, Paul A. Heidenreich, Paul J. Wang, Amin Al-Ahmad, Mintu P. Turakhia
    Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 2016

    Background—Randomized trials of left atrial appendage (LAA) closure with the Watchman device have shown varying results, and its cost effectiveness compared with anticoagulation has not been evaluated using all available contemporary trial data.

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    Working Paper

    Liran Einav, Amy Finkelstein, Maria Polyakova
    National Bureau of Economic Research, 2016
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    Journal Article

    David Chan, David Chan
    Journal of Political Economy, 2016

    Abstract:  How does teamwork increase productivity? Considering teamwork as joint monitoring and management, I investigate this question by studying the same emergency physicians working in two organizational systems differing in the team-management of work: Physicians are assigned patients in a "nurse-managed" system but divide patients between themselves in a "self-managed" system. The self-managed system increases throughput productivity by reducing a "foot-dragging" moral hazard, in which physicians prolong patient stays with expected future work.

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    Journal Article

    Nathan Lo, Anita Lowe, Eran Bendavid
    Health Affairs, 2016

    The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has been the largest funder of abstinence and faithfulness programming in sub-Saharan Africa, with a cumulative investment of over US $1.4 billion in the period 2004–13.

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    Journal Article

    Ajay Israni, Carl Dean, Brian Kasel, Lisa Berndt, Winston Wildebush, C. Jason Wang
    JMIR Public Health Surveillance, 2016

    Background

    Kidney transplant recipients must adhere to their immunosuppressive medication regimen. However, non-adherence remains a major problem.

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    Journal Article

    Paul H. Wise
    Academic Pediatrics, 2016

    The effect of child poverty and related early life experiences on adult health outcomes and patterns of aging has become a central focus of child health research and advocacy. In this article a critical review of this proliferating literature and its relevance to child health programs and policy are presented. This literature review focused on evidence of the influence of child poverty on the major contributors to adult morbidity and mortality in the United States, the mechanisms by which these associations operate, and the implications for reforming child health programs and policies.

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    Book

    Marcella Alsan, Afsan Bhadelia, Patricia Foo, Corinna Haberland, Felicia Knaul
    World Scientific Handbook of Global Health Economics and Public Policy: The Economics of Health and Health Systems, 2016

    This chapter highlights evidence that links women’s health challenges in LMICs to economics at every stage of life. It advances the notion that discrimination against women persists for sociocultural and economic reasons and is embodied in ill health and disability across the life span.

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    Journal Article

    Misha Amoils, Kay W. Chang, Olga Saynina, Paul H. Wise, Anita Honkanen
    Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Otolaryngology -- Head and Neck Surgery, 2016

    Importance

    A large-scale review is needed to characterize the rates of airway, respiratory, and cardiovascular complications after pediatric tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) for inpatient and ambulatory cohorts.

    Objective

    To identify risk factors for postoperative complications stratified by age and operative facility type among children undergoing T&A.

    Design, Setting, and Participants

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    Commentary

    Paul H. Wise, Gary Darmstadt
    Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Pediatrics, 2016

    There is something deeply troubling about a death that goes unnoticed. Beyond the humane impulse to provide solace through collective acknowledgment and community support lies the recognition that an unnoticed death implies an unnoticed life. There can be no doubt that the accurate counting and causal attribution of morbidity and mortality provide technical information that is essential for public health planning, evaluation, and improvement in program performance.

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    Journal Article

    Paul G. Barnett, Abra Jeffers, Mark W. Smith, Bruce K. Chow, Miles McFall, Andrew J. Saxon
    Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 2016

    INTRODUCTION:

    We examined the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation integrated with treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

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    Working Paper

    Christine Valente, Grant Miller
    Demography (conditionally accepted), 2016
    Abstract: 

    There is longstanding debate in population policy about the relationship between modern contraception and abortion.  Although theory predicts that they should be substitutes, the existing body of empirical evidence is difficult to interpret.  What is required is a large-scale intervention that alters the supply (or full price) of one or the other – and importantly, does so in isolation (reproductive health programs

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    Journal Article

    Maria Polyakova
    American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2016
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    Working Paper

    Marcella Alsan
    2016

    How health technology interacts with underlying cultural norms may have unanticipated consequences for development. Recent policy debates on closing the gender gap in developing countries have focused on affirmative action and economic growth, but there are reasons to expect that policies targeting the health of young children might also be effective.

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    Journal Article

    Allen Kachalia, Michelle M. Mello, Brahmajee K. Nallamothu, David M. Studdert
    Circulation, 2016

    Twenty years ago, few systematic efforts to make health care safer existed. Today, patient safety is a priority for patients, providers, payers, and policy makers. The Institute of Medicine’s 1999 report on medical error prompted a flurry of activity, including widespread adoption of error detection and reporting programs, movement toward systems approaches for addressing error, development of new clinical interventions to reduce error, and efforts to foster stronger safety cultures within healthcare organizations.

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    Journal Article

    David Studdert, Marie M. Bismark, Michelle M. Mello, Harnam Singh, Matthew J. Spittal
    The New England Journal of Medicine, 2016

    Background

    The distribution of malpractice claims among physicians is not well understood. If claim-prone physicians account for a substantial share of all claims, the ability to reliably identify them at an early stage could guide efforts to improve care.

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    Journal Article

    Marie M. Bismark, Matthew J. Spittal, Jennifer M. Morris, David M. Studdert
    The Medical Journal of Australia, 2016

    Objective

    To describe the frequency, nature and outcomes of reports about health practitioners made by their treating practitioners under Australia’s new mandatory reporting system.

    Design and setting

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    Pages