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Vaccine Technology in Developing Nations

  • John Barton

This presentation reviews the history of the production of vaccines in developing nations and the mechanisms of technology transfer, taking a long-term perspective that begins with the Institut Pasteur's activities in the late 19th and early 20th century and goes to today's technological positions of Cuba and of the Indian manufacturers that now serve UNICEF's global vaccine supply programs. The presentation concludes that the corporation-to-licensee technology transfer model is relevant only very recently, and that the most significant factors shaping today's world have been the great increase in regulatory standards in the developed world, increasing economies of scale, and the rise of a global public sector supply system.