By Tara Templin
BACKGROUND: Safety climate refers to shared perceptions of what an organization is like with regard to safety, whereas safety culture refers to employees' fundamental ideology and orientation and explains why safety is pursued in the manner exhibited within a particular organization. Although research has sought to identify opportunities for improving safety outcomes by studying patterns of variation in safety climate, few empirical studies have examined the impact of organizational characteristics such as culture on hospital safety climate.
Objective. To compare safety climate between diverse U.S. hospitals and Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals, and to explore the factors influencing climate in each setting.
Data Sources. Primary data from surveys of hospital personnel; secondary data from the American Hospital Association's 2004 Annual Survey of Hospitals.
Study Design. Cross-sectional study of 69 U.S. and 30 VA hospitals.
BACKGROUND: Concern about patient safety has promoted efforts to improve safety climate. A better understanding of how patient safety climate differs among distinct work areas and disciplines in hospitals would facilitate the design and implementation of interventions. OBJECTIVES: To understand workers' perceptions of safety climate and ways in which climate varies among hospitals and by work area and discipline. RESEARCH DESIGN: We administered the Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations survey in 2004-2005 to personnel in a
BACKGROUND: Strengthening hospital safety culture offers promise for reducing adverse events, but efforts to improve culture may not succeed if hospital managers perceive safety differently from frontline workers.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether frontline workers and supervisors perceive a more negative patient safety climate (ie, surface features, reflective of the underlying safety culture) than senior managers in their institutions. To ascertain patterns of variation within management levels by professional discipline.
OBJECTIVE: To contrast the safety-related concerns raised by front-line staff about hospital work systems (operational failures) with national patient safety initiatives.
DATA SOURCES: Primary data included 1,732 staff-identified operational failures at 20 U.S. hospitals from 2004 to 2006.
STUDY DESIGN: Senior managers observed front-line staff and facilitated open discussion meetings with employees about their patient safety concerns.
Objective: To assess variation in safety climate across VA hospitals nationally.
Study Setting: Data were collected from employees at 30 VA hospitals over a 6-month period using the Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations survey.
Study Design: We sampled 100 percent of senior managers and physicians and a random 10 percent of other employees. At 10 randomly selected hospitals, we sampled an additional 100 percent of employees working in units with intrinsically higher hazards (high-hazard units [HHUs]).
Patient safety has been a priority in health care since Hippocrates admonished physicians to "first do no harm." Even so, the Institute of Medicine found in 2000 that approximately 98 000 patients die from preventable medical errors each year. Recent US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates project that 270 individuals die each day from hospital-acquired infections. Despite substantial efforts and investments, widespread and substantial improvement is not evident.
Objective: To describe the development of an instrument for assessing workforce perceptions of hospital safety culture and to assess its reliability and validity.
Data Sources/Study Setting: Primary data collected between March 2004 and May 2005. Personnel from 105 U.S. hospitals completed a 38-item paper and pencil survey. We received 21,496 completed questionnaires, representing a 51 percent response rate.
This book focuses on the role of computers in the provision of medical services. It provides both a conceptual framework and a practical approach for the implementation and management of IT used to improve the delivery of health care. Inspired by a Stanford University training program, it fills the need for a high quality text in computers and medicine. It meets the growing demand by practitioners, researchers, and students for a comprehensive introduction to key topics in the field. Completely revised and expanded, this work includes several new chapters filled with brand new material.
The Patient Safety Consortium included a group of 26 diverse hospitals in or near California. In 2001 and 2002, many consortium hospitals were surveyed using the Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations (PSCHO) tool to present quantitative measures of hospital safety climate and qualitative reports on safety practices over 2 years. Investigators engaged in discussions with consortium hospitals to elicit reports about their patient safety activities.
Background: The Internet has emerged as a valuable tool for health information. Half of the U.S. population lacked Internet access in 2001, creating concerns about those without access. Starting in 1999, a survey firm randomly invited individuals to join their research panel in return for free Internet access. This provides a unique setting to study the ways that people who had not previously obtained Internet access use the Internet when it becomes available to them.
OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) whether commercial health plans' coverage criteria for a costly technology-based medical intervention are consistent with recent clinical effectiveness evidence, (2) whether medical directors adhere to planwide coverage criteria when making coverage determinations for individual patients, and (3) if any organizational characteristics are associated with having more stringent coverage criteria or making more frequent coverage denials.
STUDY DESIGN: Case-based survey of medical directors of US commercial health plans.
OBJECTIVES: We examined consumers' search for information about health insurance choices and their use of the Internet for that search and to manage health benefits.
STUDY DESIGN: We surveyed a random sample of more than 4500 individuals aged 21 years and older who were members of a survey research panel during December 2001 and January 2002.
We compared results of safety climate survey questions from health care respondents with those from naval aviation, a high-reliability organization. Separate surveys containing a subset of 23 similar questions were conducted among employees from 15 hospitals and from naval aviators from 226 squadrons. For each question a "problematic response" was defined that suggested an absence of a safety climate. Overall, the problematic response rate was 5.6% for naval aviators versus 17.5% for hospital personnel (p
Context The Internet has attracted considerable attention as a means to improve health and health care delivery, but it is not clear how prevalent Internet use for health care really is or what impact it has on health care utilization. Available estimates of use and impact vary widely. Without accurate estimates of use and effects, it is difficult to focus policy discussions or design appropriate policy activities.
Objective: To understand fundamental attitudes towards patient safety culture and ways in which attitudes vary by hospital, job class, and clinical status.
Design: Using a closed ended survey, respondents were questioned on 16 topics important to a culture of safety in health care or other industries plus demographic information. The survey was conducted by US mail (with an option to respond by Internet) over a 6 month period from April 2001 in three mailings.
Setting: 15 hospitals participating in the California Patient Safety Consortium.
Sara J. Singer, Alan M. Garber,and Alain C. Enthoven have designed a comprehensive, new approach for expanding access to health insurance. The proposal is built on the following key elements:
THE PLAN WOULD PROVIDE near-universal coverage by making private plans more affordable and helping low- and middle-income people buy coverage. This would be accomplished though tax credits and by creating “insurance exchanges” that would provide health insurance choices and promote competition among health plans.
With the backlash against managed care, medical necessity has become the focus of increasing controversy. California's health care marketplace has provided some unique opportunities to understand the role of medical necessity in managed care decisionmaking, as the legislature and stakeholders have discovered how little consensus there is on itsmeaning, ownership, and application. Nevertheless , many decisionmakers agree that medical necessity decisions generally involve authorizing treatment for an individual patient.