American Journal of Health Economics
By Tara Templin
The Epidemiologic Challenge to the Conduct of Just War: Confronting Indirect Civilian Casualties of War
Most civilian casualties in war are not the result of direct exposure to bombs and bullets; they are due to the destruction of the essentials of daily living, including food, water, shelter, and health care. These “indirect” effects are too often invisible and not adequately assessed nor addressed by just war principles or global humanitarian response.
To identify the prevalence and predictors of malnutrition among 2-year old children in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.
Prospective cohort of 852 Guatemalan children in San Lucas Toliman, Guatemala followed from birth to age 2 from May 2008 to December 2013. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and health data of children was collected at 2 month intervals.
The effect of child poverty and related early life experiences on adult health outcomes and patterns of aging has become a central focus of child health research and advocacy. In this article a critical review of this proliferating literature and its relevance to child health programs and policy are presented. This literature review focused on evidence of the influence of child poverty on the major contributors to adult morbidity and mortality in the United States, the mechanisms by which these associations operate, and the implications for reforming child health programs and policies.
Postoperative Complications in Pediatric Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy in Ambulatory vs Inpatient Settings
A large-scale review is needed to characterize the rates of airway, respiratory, and cardiovascular complications after pediatric tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) for inpatient and ambulatory cohorts.
To identify risk factors for postoperative complications stratified by age and operative facility type among children undergoing T&A.
Design, Setting, and Participants
The Grand Divergence in Global Child Health: Confronting Data Requirements in Areas of Conflict and Chronic Political Instability
There is something deeply troubling about a death that goes unnoticed. Beyond the humane impulse to provide solace through collective acknowledgment and community support lies the recognition that an unnoticed death implies an unnoticed life. There can be no doubt that the accurate counting and causal attribution of morbidity and mortality provide technical information that is essential for public health planning, evaluation, and improvement in program performance.
Background: High childhood obesity prevalence has raised concerns about future adult health, generating calls for obesity screening of young children.
Objective: To estimate how well childhood obesity predicts adult obesity and to forecast obesity-related health of future US adults.
Design: Longitudinal statistical analyses; microsimulations combining multiple data sets.
Access to pediatric subspecialty care: a population study of pediatric rheumatology inpatients in California
Can State Early Intervention Programs Meet the Increased Demand of Children Suspected of Having Autism Spectrum Disorders?
Objective: To determine whether Early Intervention programs have the capacity to accommodate the expected increase in referrals following the American Academy of Pediatrics' 2007 recommendation for universal screening of 18- and 24-month-old children for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).
There used to be something called child health policy. It was focused on crafting a national agenda for child health and was explicit in distinguishing the special needs of children from those of the adult world.
OBJECTIVE Despite the documented utility of regionalized systems of pediatric specialty care, little is known about the actual use of such systems in total populations of chronically ill children. The objective of this study was to evaluate variations and trends in regional patterns of specialty care hospitalization for children with chronic illness in California.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to evaluate the impact of managed care on publicly insured children with special health care needs (CSHCN).
METHODS: We conducted a review of the extant literature. Using a formal computerized search, with search terms reflecting 7 specific outcome categories, we summarized study findings and study quality.
To evaluate the evidence that quality improvement (QI) strategies can improve the processes and outcomes of outpatient pediatric asthma care.
Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group database (January 1966 to April 2006), MEDLINE (January 1966 to April 2006), Cochrane Consumers and Communication Group database (January 1966 to May 2006), and bibliographies of retrieved articles.
Disparities in Trauma Center Access Despite Increasing Utilization: Data From California, 1999 to 2006
Background: Although efforts have been made to address disparities in access to trauma care in the past decade, there is little evidence to show if utilization has changed. We use patient-level data to describe the changes in utilization of trauma centers (TCs) in an 8-year period in California.
Methods: We analyzed all statewide trauma admissions (n = 752,706) using the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Discharge Patient Discharge Database from the period of 1999 to 2006, and determined the trends in admissions and place of care.
Confronting Social Disparities in Child Health: a Critical Appraisal of Life-Course Science and Research
The utility of the life-course framework to address disparities in child health is based on its ability to integrate the science of child development with the requirements of effective and just public policy. I argue that the life-course framework is best assessed in a historical context and through 4 essential observations. First, early genetic and environmental interactions are complex and influence outcomes in different settings in very different ways.
Children with Special Health Care Needs: How Immigrant Status is Related to Health Care Access, Health Care Utilization, and Health Status
To compare health care access, utilization, and perceived health status for children with SHCN in immigrant and nonimmigrant families. This cross-sectional study used data from the 2003 California Health Interview Survey to identify 1404 children (ages 0-11) with a special health care need. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to examine relations between immigrant status and health access, utilization, and health status variables. Compared to children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in nonimmigrant families, CSHCN in
Objective To evaluate the evidence that quality improvement (QI) strategies can improve the processes and outcomes of outpatient pediatric asthma care.
Data Sources Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group database (January 1966 to April 2006), MEDLINE (January 1966 to April 2006), Cochrane Consumers and Communication Group database (January 1966 to May 2006), and bibliographies of retrieved articles.
Objectives From 1994 to the year 2000 the government of Puerto Rico implemented a health care reform which included the mandatory enrollment of the entire Medicaid eligible population under Medicaid managed care (MMC) plans. This study assessed the effect of MMC on the use, initiation, utilization, and adequacy of prenatal care services over the reform period.
BACKGROUND: Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to human diseases. Most common diseases are influenced by a large number of genetic and environmental factors, most of which individually have only a modest effect on the disease. Though genetic contributions are relatively well characterized for some monogenetic diseases, there has been no effort at curating the extensive list of environmental etiological factors.
Any close examination of the epidemiologic trends in childhood suggests 2 fundamental findings. First, pediatrics has been among the most successful specialties in the history of medicine. Second, pediatrics must change. At the heart of this seeming paradox is the recognition that pediatrics has so altered the clinical threats to the well-being ofthe past 50 years that new structures of care will be required. The pride in pediatrics' remarkable record of impact and at the same time defend the status quo. modern children over epidemiology presents a ruthless logic: one cannot take
Transforming Preconceptional, Prenatal, and Interconceptional Care into a Comprehensive Commitment to Women's Health
Preconception and interconception care respond to the growing body of evidence that many of the most important determinants of birth outcomes may exist before pregnancy occurs. In this sense, the strategy of extending prenatal care into the preconception and interconception periods marks a useful step in reforming the public health approach to improving birth outcomes. However, although helpful in underscoring the continuity of risk that can ultimately find expression in adverse birth outcomes, the concern is that without greater critical attention these
Using Linked Data to Assess Patterns of Early Intervention (EI) Referral Among Very Low Birth Weight Infants
Access to Early Intervention (EI) services may improve cognitive and behavioral outcomes in very low birth weight infants, but few states have population-based data to evaluate EI outreach efforts. We analyzed Massachusetts (MA) infants born weighing <1,200 g to identify maternal and birth characteristics that predicted EI referral and timing of referral.