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Michael K. Gould
Journal Articles

Safety and Efficacy of Extended-Duration Antiviral Chemoprophylaxis Against Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza

Nayer Khazeni, Dena M. Bravata, Jon-Erik Holty, Uyeki TM, Stave CD, Michael K. Gould
Annals of Internal Medicine , 2009

Background: Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are stockpiled internationally for extended use in an influenza pandemic.

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of extended-duration (>4 weeks) NAI chemoprophylaxis against influenza.

Data Sources: Studies published in any language through 11 June 2009 identified by searching 10 electronic databases and 3 trial registries.

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Journal Articles

Hospital Characteristics Associated with Timeliness of Care in Veterans with Lung Cancer

Ellen Schultz, Olsson JK, McMillan A McMillan A, Olsson JK, Enderle MA, Graham BA Graham BA, Ordin DL Ordin DL, Michael K. Gould
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine , 2009

Rationale: Timeliness is one of six important dimensions of health care quality recognized by the Institute of Medicine. Objectives: To evaluate timeliness of lung cancer care and identify institutional characteristics associated with timely care within the VA Health Care System.

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Journal Articles

Timeliness Across the Continuum of Care in Veterans with Lung Cancer

Powell AP, Ellen Schultz, Ordin DL, Enderle MA, Graham BA, Partin M, Michael Gould
Journal of Thoracic Oncology , 2008

INTRODUCTION: By providing timely care at all steps along the continuum of lung cancer care, providers may be able to limit disease progression before treatment and possibly improve clinical outcomes. This study examines the timeliness of key events in the process of care between initial radiograph and first treatment. METHODS: Dates of key events were extracted from the medical records of 2463 veterans receiving lung cancer care at 133 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities. After reviewing their site's abstraction results, facility leaders

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Journal Articles

Timeliness of Care in Veterans with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Michael K. Gould, Ghaus SJ, Olsson JK, Ellen Schultz
Chest , 2008

Background: Timeliness is an important dimension of quality of care for patients with lung cancer.

Methods: We reviewed the records of consecutive patients in whom non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) had been diagnosed between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2003, at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System. We used multivariable statistical methods to identify independent predictors of timely care and examined the effect of timeliness on survival.

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Journal Articles

Variation in Experts' Beliefs about Lung Cancer Growth, Progression, and Prognosis

Ellen Schultz, Silvestri GA, Michael Gould
Journal of Thoracic Oncology , 2008

Introduction: Little is known about the natural history of malignant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). Experts' beliefs may help fill these knowledge gaps and explain variation in clinical practices.

Methods: Using a modified Delphi process, we surveyed a group of lung cancer experts about tumor growth, disease progression, and prognosis in patients with malignant SPN. After completing the first survey, experts were given the opportunity during a second survey to revise their responses in light of their peers' beliefs.

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Journal Articles

Initial Evaluation of the Patient With Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Signs, Laboratory Tests, and Paraneoplastic Syndromes: ACCP Evidenced-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines

SG Spiro, Michael K. Gould, GL Colice
Chest , 2007
Background: This chapter of the guidelines is intended to provide an evidence-based assessment of the initial evaluation of patients recognized as having lung cancer and the recognition of paraneoplastic syndromes.

Methods: The current medical literature that is applicable to this issue was identified by a computerized search and was evaluated using standardized methods. Recommendations were framed using the approach described by the Health and Science Policy Committee of the American College of Chest Physicians.

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Journal Articles

Noninvasive Staging of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

GA Silvestri, Michael K. Gould, ML Margolis, LT Tanoue, D McCrory, E Toloza, F Detterbeck
Chest , 2007
Background: Correctly staging lung cancer is important because the treatment options and the prognosis differ significantly by stage. Several noninvasive imaging studies including chest CT scanning and positron emission tomography (PET) scanning are available. Understanding the test characteristics of these noninvasive staging studies is critical to decision making.
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Journal Articles

Evaluation of Patients With Pulmonary Nodules: When Is It Lung Cancer?

Michael K. Gould, J Fletcher, MD Iannettoni, WR Lynch, DE Midthun, DP Naidich, DE Ost
Chest , 2007

Background: Pulmonary nodules are spherical radiographic opacities that measure up to 30 mm in diameter. Nodules are extremely common in clinical practice and challenging to manage, especially small, "subcentimeter" nodules. Identification of malignant nodules is important because they represent a potentially curable form of lung cancer.

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Journal Articles

Validation of Two Models to Estimate the Probability of Malignancy in Patients with Solitary Pulmonary Nodules

Ellen Schultz, Gillian D. Sanders, PR Trotter, EF Jr Patz, GA Silvestri, Douglas K. Owens, Michael K. Gould
Thorax , 2007

Background: Effective strategies for managing patients with solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) depend critically on the pre-test probability of malignancy.

Objective: To validate two previously developed models that estimate the probability that an indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is malignant, based on clinical characteristics and radiographic findings.

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Journal Articles

Asthma Control, Severity, and Quality of Life: Quantifying the Effect of Uncontrolled Disease

H Chen, Michael K. Gould, PD Blanc, DP Miller, TV Kamath, JH Lee, SD Sullivan
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology , 2007

Background: Current practice guidelines emphasize the importance of attaining asthma control. We sought to quantify the degree of quality-of-life impairment associated with different levels of asthma control.

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Journal Articles

Lung Cancer Incidence in Never Smokers

HA Wakelee, ET Chang, SL Gomez, TH Keegan, D Feskanich, CA Clarke, L Holmberg, LC Yong, LN Kolonel, Michael K. Gould, DW West
Journal of Clinical Oncology , 2007

Purpose: Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Although smoking remains the predominant cause of lung cancer, lung cancer in never smokers is an increasingly prominent public health issue. However, data on this topic, particularly lung cancer incidence rates in never smokers, are limited.

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Abstracts

Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Thrombolysis in Submassive Pulmonary Embolism

Daniella Perlroth, Gillian D. Sanders, Michael K. Gould
Archives of Internal Medicine , 2007

Background: Thrombolytic therapy is controversial in patients with submassive pulmonary embolism.

Methods: We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare health effects and costs of treatment with alteplase plus heparin sodium vs heparin alone in hemodynamically stable patients with pulmonary embolism and right ventricular dysfunction by developing a Markov model and using data from clinical trials and administrative sources.

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Working Papers

Closing the Quality Gap: A Critical Analysis of Quality Improvement Strategies, Vol. 5: Asthma

Dena M. Bravata, Vandana Sundaram, Robyn Lewis, Allison Gienger, Michael K. Gould, Kathryn M. McDonald, Paul H. Wise, Jon-Erik Holty, Katherine E. Herz, H Paguntalan, C Sharp, J Kim, E Wang, L Chamberlain, L Shieh, Douglas K. Owens
Stanford-UCSF Evidence-based Practice Center, for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality , 2007

Objectives:

Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines for the management of pediatric and adult asthma, there remains a significant gap between accepted best practices for asthma care and actual care delivered to asthma patients. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence that quality improvement (QI) strategies can improve the processes and outcomes of outpatient care for children and adults with asthma.

Data Sources:

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Journal Articles

An Official ATS Statement: Grading the Quality of Evidence and Strength of Recommendations in ATS Guidelines and Recommendations

H Schunemann, R Jaeschke, D Cook, WF Bria, BF Fahy, AA El Solh, A Ernst, Michael K. Gould, KL Horan, JA Krishnan, CA Manthous, JR Maurer, WT McNicholas, AD Oxman, G Rubenfeld, GM Turino, G Guyatt, ATS Documents Development and Implementation Committee
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine , 2006
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Journal Articles

Accuracy of Quantitative Ultrasound for Identifying Patients with Osteoporosis

Smita Nayak, Ingram Olkin, Hau Liu, M Grabe, Michael K. Gould, IE Allen, Douglas Owens, Dena Bravata
Annals of Internal Medicine , 2006

Background:

There is increased interest in quantitative ultrasound for osteoporosis screening because it predicts fracture risk, is portable, and is relatively inexpensive. However, there is no consensus regarding its accuracy for identifying patients with osteoporosis.

Purpose:

To determine the sensitivity and specificity of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound for identifying patients who meet the World Health Organization's diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as the reference standard.

Data Sources:

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Journal Articles

Health-related quality of life in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a systematic review

Michael K. Gould, Swigris JJ, Kuschner WG, Jacobs SS, Wilson SR
Thorax , 2005

BACKGROUND:

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) profoundly affects the quality of patients' lives. A systematic review was performed to evaluate critically the published literature and to examine what is known about health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with IPF.

METHODS:

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Journal Articles

Accuracy of Transbronchial Needle Aspiration for Mediastinal Staging of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Michael K. Gould, Jon-Erik Holty, Kuschner WG
Thorax , 2005

Background: The reported accuracy of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) for mediastinal staging in non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) varies widely. We performed a meta-analysis to estimate the accuracy of TBNA for mediastinal staging in NSCLC.

Methods: We searched Medline, Embase and the bibliographies of retrieved articles, with no language restriction, for studies evaluating TBNA accuracy. We used meta-analytic methods to construct summary receiver- operating characteristic curves and to pool sensitivity and specificity.

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Journal Articles

Health-related quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

Mary K. Goldstein, Shafazand S, Doyle RL, Mark A. Hlatky, Michael K. Gould
Chest , 2004

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) often present with dyspnea and severe functional limitations, but their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has not been studied extensively. This study describes HRQOL in a cohort of patients with PAH.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

SETTING: A tertiary care, university hospital-based, pulmonary hypertension (PH) clinic.

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Journal Articles

Variability in Antibiotic Prescribing Patterns and Outcomes in Patients with Clinically Suspected Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

RA Fowler, K Flavin, J Barr, AB Weinacker, Julie Parsonnet, Michael K. Gould
Chest , 2003

Study Objectives: To describe the variation in clinical practice strategies for the treatment of suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in a population of critically ill patients, and to determine whether initial empiric treatment with certain antibiotics, monotherapy vs combination antibiotic therapy, or appropriate vs inappropriate antibiotic therapy is associated with survival, length of hospital stay, or days free of antibiotics.

Design: Prospective, observational cohort study.

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Journal Articles

Test Performance of Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography for Mediastinal Staging in Patients with Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Michael K. Gould, Ware G. Kuschner, Jo Kay Chan, Douglas K. Owens, WG Kuschner, CE Rydzak, CC Maclean, AN Demas, H Shigemitsu
Annals of Internal Medicine , 2003

PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for mediastinal staging in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and to determine whether test results are conditionally dependent (the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET depend on the presence or absence of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes on CT).

DATA SOURCES: Computerized search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and CancerLit through March 2003 and reference lists of retrieved studies and review articles.

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Journal Articles

Validity of Standard Gamble Utilities as Measured by Transplant Readiness in Lung Transplant Candidates

Singer LG, Theodore J, Michael K. Gould
Medical Decision Making , 2003

PURPOSE: To evaluate the validity of standard gamble (SG) utilities, by comparing utilities with decision-making behavior in a group of lung transplant candidates facing a risky health decision.

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Journal Articles

Cost of positron emission tomography in six United States Veterans Affairs hospitals and two academic medical centers, The

M Berger, Michael K. Gould, Paul G. Barnett
American Journal of Roentgenology , 2003

OBJECTIVE: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a high-cost imaging tool primarily used in oncology, cardiology, and neuropsychiatry. Accurate estimates of the cost of PET are needed to assess its cost effectiveness and determine the appropriate role for this modality in clinical applications. We performed a survey-based cost analysis of PET with FDG by estimating direct, indirect, and capital costs from eight PET centers. A breakdown of the operational budget of PET centers and FDG-compounding facilities is presented along with the costs per scan.

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Journal Articles

Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Management Strategies for Patients with Solitary Polmonary Nodules

Michael K. Gould, Gillian D. Sanders, Paul G. Barnett, C Rydzak, CC Maclean, Mark B. McClellan, Douglas K. Owens
Annals of Internal Medicine , 2003

BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a potentially useful but expensive test to diagnose solitary pulmonary nodules. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of strategies for pulmonary nodule diagnosis and to specifically compare strategies that did and did not include FDG-PET. DESIGN: Decision model.

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Journal Articles

Current Concepts: Preventing Complications of Central Venous Catheterization

DC McGee, Michael K Gould
New England Journal of Medicine , 2003

The United States, physicians insert more than 5 million central venous catheters every year. Central venous catheters allow measurement of hemodynamic variables that cannot be measured accurately by noninvasive means and allow delivery of medications and nutritional support that cannot be given safely through peripheral venous catheters. Unfortunately, the use of central venous catheters is associated with adverse events that are both hazardous to patients and expensive to treat. More than 15 percent of patients who receive these catheters have complications.

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Abstracts

Cost-Effectiveness of Positron Emission Tomography for Diagnosis of Solitary Pulmonary Nodules

Michael K. Gould, Gillian D. Sanders, Paul G. Barnett, Chara Rydzak, Mark B. McClellan, Douglas K. Owens, CC MacLean
Medical Decision Making , 2001

Background: Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a potentially useful but expensive test to diagnose solitary pulmonary nodules.

Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of strategies for pulmonary nodule diagnosis and to specifically compare strategies that did and did not include FDG-PET.

Design: Decision model.

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