American Journal of Health Economics
By Tara Templin
Background: The total population health benefits and costs of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States are unclear.
Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and optimal delivery conditions of PrEP for PWID.
Design: Empirically calibrated dynamic compartmental model.
Data Sources: Published literature and expert opinion.
Target Population: Adult U.S. PWID.
Time Horizon: 20 years and lifetime.
Evaluating Cost-effectiveness of Interventions That Affect Fertility and Childbearing: How Health Effects Are Measured Matters
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for economic evaluations of health interventions define relevant outcomes as those accruing to individuals receiving interventions. Little consensus exists on counting health impacts on current and future fertility and childbearing. Our objective was to characterize current practices for counting such health outcomes.
Modeling and Calibration for Exposure to Time-Varying, Modifiable Risk Factors: The Example of Smoking Behavior in India
Risk factors increase the incidence and severity of chronic disease. To examine future trends and develop policies addressing chronic diseases, it is important to capture the relationship between exposure and disease development, which is challenging given limited data.
The cost-effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men in the United States
Balancing immunological benefits and cardiovascular risks of antiretroviral therapy: When is immediate treatment optimal?
Cost effectiveness of screening strategies for early identification of HIV and HCV infection in injection drug users
Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of expanding harm reduction and antiretroviral therapy in a mixed HIV epidemic: A modeling analysis for ukraine
Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Expanding Harm Reduction Programs and HIV Antiretroviral Therapy in a Mixed HIV epidemic: An Analysis for Ukraine
Background Injection drug use (IDU) and heterosexual virus transmission both contribute to the growing mixed HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. In Ukraine—chosen in this study as a representative country—IDU-related risk behaviors cause half of new infections, but few injection drug users (IDUs) receive methadone substitution therapy. Only 10% of eligible individuals receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). The appropriate resource allocation between these programs has not been studied.
The cost-effectiveness and population outcomes of expanded HIV screening and antiretroviral treatment in the united states
Although recent guidelines call for expanded routine screening for HIV, resources for antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited, and all eligible persons are not currently receiving treatment.
To evaluate the effects on the U.S. HIV epidemic of expanded ART, HIV screening, or interventions to reduce risk behavior.
Dynamic mathematical model of HIV transmission and disease progression and cost-effectiveness analysis.
Cost-effectiveness of strategies for diagnosing pulmonary embolism among emergency department patients presenting with undifferentiated symptoms
Symptoms associated with pulmonary embolism can be nonspecific and similar to many competing diagnoses, leading to excessive costly testing and treatment, as well as missed diagnoses. Objective studies are essential for diagnosis. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of different diagnostic strategies in an emergency department (ED) for patients presenting with undifferentiated symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism.
Cost effectiveness of nationwide Hepatitis B catch-up vaccination among children and adolescents in China
Cost-effective control of chronic viral diseases: Finding the optimal level of screening and contact tracing
Chronic viral diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) afflict millions of people worldwide. A key public health challenge in managing such diseases is identifying infected, asymptomatic individuals so that they can receive antiviral treatment. Such treatment can benefit both the treated individual (by improving quality and length of life) and the population as a whole (through reduced transmission).
The Cost Effectiveness and Population Outcomes of Expanded HIV Screening and Antiretroviral Treatment in the United States
Background: Although recent guidelines call for expanded routine screening for HIV, resources for antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited, and all eligible persons are not currently receiving treatment.
Objective: To evaluate the effects on the U.S. HIV epidemic of expanded ART, HIV screening, or interventions to reduce risk behavior.
BACKGROUND: Universal testing and treatment holds promise for reducing the burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa, but linkage from testing to treatment sites and retention in care are inadequate.
This paper develops a mathematical/economic framework to address the following question: Given a particular population, a specific HIV prevention program and a fixed amount of funds that could be invested in the program, how much money should be invested?
Potential Population Health Outcomes and Expenditures of HIV Vaccination Strategies in the United States
Estimating the potential health benefits and expenditures of a partially effective HIV vaccine is an important consideration in the debate about whether HIV vaccine research should continue. We developed an epidemic model to estimate HIV prevalence, new infections, and the cost-effectiveness of vaccination strategies in the U.S. Vaccines with modest efficacy could prevent 300,000-700,000 HIV infections and save $30 billion in healthcare expenditures over 20 years. Targeted vaccination of high-risk individuals is economically efficient, but
Recommendations for Modeling Disaster Responses in Public Health and Medicine: A Position Paper of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Purpose. Mathematical and simulation models are increasingly used to plan for and evaluate health sector responses to disasters, yet no clear consensus exists regarding best practices for the design, conduct, and reporting of such models. The authors examined a large selection of published health sector disaster response models to generate a set of best practice guidelines for such models.