American Journal of Health Economics
By Tara Templin
Background. Helicobacter pylori vaccines are under development to prevent infection. We quantified the cost‐effectiveness of such a vaccine in the United States, using a dynamic transmission model.
Six cases of coagulase-negative staphylococcal mediastinitis were identified in the latter half of 1999. A new preoperative cleansing solution was suspected by hospital staff to be a factor in the outbreak. We evaluated this possible risk factor along with other known and suspected surgical site infection risk factors in this case-control study.
Although gastric hypochlorhydria is a risk factor for gastroenteritis and for gastric cancer, no reliable, inexpensive, noninvasive test exists for screening or epidemiologic studies. We aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the blood quininium resin test (bQRT) for hypochlorhydria, against pH monitoring. Twelve fasting adult volunteers-seven with and five without H. pylori infection-ingested 80 mg/kg of quininium resin twice, once with and once without acid suppression. Gastric pH was monitored for 75 minutes; serum samples were obtained at times 0 and 75 minutes.
Acquisition of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Rhesus Macaques is Most Consistent with Oral-Oral Transmission
Socially housed rhesus monkeys rapidly acquired Helicobacter pylori infection, although the organism was rarely cultivated from saliva, feces, or the environment. Since the concentrations of H. pylori in vomit were compatible with what is known about the infectious dose, our results are most consistent with an oral-oral means of transmission.
Although most of Helicobacter pylori-related diseases are associated with male gender, the role of gender as a risk factor for H. pylori infection is still debated. To assess the true association between H. pylori and gender, we conducted a meta-analysis of large, population-based studies where the measure of association had been adjusted at least for age and socioeconomic status, and obtained primary data from authors when information on gender associations were not presented.
Setting: Santa Clara County, Northern California.
Objective: To characterize agreement of tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) with repeated testing.
Design: Fifty-two subjects participating in an ongoing prospective study of infectious disease transmission were tested by TST and QFT at two home visits 3 months apart. Boosting was defined as reclassification of TST from negative to positive. Agreement and reproducibility of TST and QFT were assessed using kappa and McNemar statistics.
With continuing emigration from endemic countries, screening for parasitic infections remains a priority in U.S. communities serving refugee and immigrant populations. We report the prevalence of helminths and protozoa as well as demographic risk factors associated with these infections among 533 refugees seen at the Santa Clara County, California, Refugee Clinic between October 2001 and January 2004. Stool parasites were identified from 14% of refugees, including 9% found to have one or more protozoa and 6% found to have at least one helminth.
Significance of Transiently Positive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Results in Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Stool Samples from Children
In young children, the significance of stool samples transiently positive for Helicobacter pylori antigen is unknown. As part of a larger prospective study on enteric infections, stool samples were obtained from 323 children at two time points 3 months apart and tested for H. pylori antigen using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test.
Background: An increase in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has coincided with a decrease in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Whether these 2 phenomena are associated is unknown.
Helicobacter pylori Eradication and Gastric Preneoplastic Conditions: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is thought to modify susceptibility to gastroenteritis.
Methods: Members of northern California households with an index case of gastroenteritis were interviewed regarding recent episodes and tested for H. pylori. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk of secondary gastroenteritis within households matched for members with secondary gastroenteritis (cases) and those without symptoms (control subjects). Case and control subjects were also tested for hepatitis A virus (HAV).
C-Reactive Protein, Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia Pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus and Risk for Myocardial Infarction
Purpose: C-reactive protein (CRP), Chlamydia pneumonia, Helicobacter pylori, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) have each been associated with atherosclerosis. We assessed how infection and CRP related to risk for subsequent myocardial infarction (MI).
No Association Between Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infections Among Gastrointestinal Clinic Attendees in Lima, Peru
Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection can cause hypochlorhydria, a positive risk factor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. This study examined the association between HP and MTB infections among persons attending the Policlinico Peruano Japones Gastrointestinal Clinic in Lima, Peru. From 23 June 2000 to 18 August 2000, consenting 18-55 year olds who attended the clinic for gastric biopsy gave blood for HP serologic testing, underwent tuberculin skin testing (TST) and completed a social and medical history.
Variability in Antibiotic Prescribing Patterns and Outcomes in Patients with Clinically Suspected Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
Study Objectives: To describe the variation in clinical practice strategies for the treatment of suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in a population of critically ill patients, and to determine whether initial empiric treatment with certain antibiotics, monotherapy vs combination antibiotic therapy, or appropriate vs inappropriate antibiotic therapy is associated with survival, length of hospital stay, or days free of antibiotics.
Design: Prospective, observational cohort study.
Reinfection with any organism is related to the force of infection in the population and on both innate and acquired immunity to infection. Little is yet known about primary immune protection against Helicobacter pylori. Some data suggest that children can be recurrently infected, spontaneously eliminating the organism only to be infected again and again until the organism takes hold. This pattern of recurrent infection is not observed in patients who receive eradication therapy for chronic infection.
Helicobacter pylori in Cathartic Stools of Subjects With and Without Cimetidine-Induced Hypochlorhydria
We previously identified viable Helicobacter pylori in stools from asymptomatic hosts. We now report whether a decrease in gastric acidity enhances faecal shedding. Sixteen asymptomatic H. pylori-positive patients underwent two separate days of phosphosoda-induced diarrhoea, both with normal gastric acidity and under hypochlorhydric conditions induced with the H2-blocker cimetidine. Stool samples were collected for culture to determine the presence of viable H. pylori.
Background: Gastric acid is an important defence against enteric infection. Studies investigating the relationship between hypochlorhydria and enteric infections or gastric malignancy have been limited by difficulties in the non-invasive measurement of gastric acidity. AIM: To develop a blood test for hypochlorhydria based on the quininium resin test.
C-Reactive Protein, Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumonia, Cytomegalovirus and Risk for Myocardial Infarction: A Prospective Study
Eradication Rate of Helicobacter pylori in a Mexican Population at High Risk for Gastric Cancer and Use of Serology to Assess Cure
Histological Classification of Gastric Adenocarcinoma for Epidemiological Research: Concordance Between Pathologists
Epidemiology of gastric adenocarcinoma suggests that intestinal-type and diffuse-type cancers develop through distinct causal pathways. To examine the differences in risk factors and molecular changes between the histological types, reliable data on histological typing are essential. We evaluated the concordance between two pathologists in assessment of 95 gastric adenocarcinomas for Lauren classification and tumor grade. Two pathologists, each blinded to the other's assessment, reviewed H&E-stained slides of gastric tumor.
Intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinomas usually are preceded by chronic atrophic gastritis. Studies of gastric cancer prevention often rely on identification of this condition. In a clinical trial, we sought to determine the best serological screening method for chronic atrophic gastritis and compared our findings to the published literature. Test characteristics of potential screening tests (antibodies to Helicobacter pyloni or CagA, elevated gastrin, low pepsinogen, increased age) alone or in combination were examined among consecutive subjects enrolled in a study of H.