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Brian Knutson
Journal Articles

Affect Dynamics, Affective Forecasting, and Aging

Lisbeth Nielsen, Brian Knutson, Laura Carstensen
Emotion, 2008 December 31, 2008

Affective forecasting, experienced affect, and recalled affect were compared in younger and older adults during a task in which participants worked to win and avoid losing small monetary sums. Dynamic changes in affect were measured along valence and arousal dimensions, with probes during both anticipatory and consummatory task phases. Older and younger adults displayed distinct patterns of affect dynamics. Younger adults reported increased negative arousal during loss anticipation and positive arousal during gain anticipation.

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Journal Articles

Individual differences in insular sensitvity during loss anticipation predict avoidance learning

Gregory R. Samanez-Larkin, Nick G. Hollon, Laura L. Carstensen, Brian Knutson
Psychol Sci, 2008 April 1, 2008

The anterior insula has been implicated in both the experience and the anticipation of negative outcomes. Although individual differences in insular sensitivity have been associated with self-report measures of chronic anxiety, previous research has not examined whether individual differences in insular sensitivity predict learning to avoid aversive stimuli. In the present study, insular sensitivity was assessed as participants anticipated monetary losses while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging.

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Journal Articles

Affective Influence on Judgments and Decisions: Moving Towards Core Mechanisms

P Winkielman, Brian Knutson
Review of General Psychology, 2007 December 31, 2007

This article reviews psychological accounts of affective influence on judgments and decisions and argues that these accounts can be enriched by insights from biopsychology. The authors show how biopsychological research helps (1) reveal the sources of values and feelings; (2) predict when affect will influence attentional, perceptual, memorial, and decision processes; and (3) identify precise mechanisms underlying the interaction between affective and cognitive systems.

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Journal Articles

Linking Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine and Blood Oxygenation

Brian Knutson, SEB Gibbs
Psychopharmacology, 2007 December 31, 2007

Rationale: Animal research suggests that anticipation of reward can elicit dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) research further suggests that reward anticipation can increase local blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the NAcc. However, the physiological relationship between dopamine release and BOLD signal increases in the NAcc has not yet been established.

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Journal Articles

Neural Predictors of Purchases

Brian Knutson, S Rick, GE Wimmer, D Prelec, G Loewenstein
Neuron, 2007 December 31, 2007

Microeconomic theory maintains that purchases are driven by a combination of consumer preference and price. Using event-related fMRI, we investigated how people weigh these factors to make purchasing decisions. Consistent with neuroimaging evidence suggesting that distinct circuits anticipate gain and loss, product preference activated the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), while excessive prices activated the insula and deactivated the mesial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) prior to the purchase decision.

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Journal Articles

Anticipation of Monetary Gain but not Loss in Healthy Older Adults

Gregory R. Samanez-Larkin, Sasha E. Gibbs, Kabir Khanna, Lisbeth Nielsen, Laura L. Carstensen, Brian Knutson
Nat Neurosci, 2007 June 1, 2007

Although the global declines in structure have been documented in the aging human brain, little is known about the functional integrity of the striatum and prefrontal cortex in older adults during incentive processing. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether younger and older adults differed in both self-reported and neural responsiveness to anticipated monetary gains and losses.

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Journal Articles

Splitting the Difference: How Does the Brain Code Reward Episodes?

Brian Knutson, GE Wimmer
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2007 May 1, 2007

Animal research and human brain imaging findings suggest that reward processing involves distinct anticipation and outcome phases. Error terms in popular models of reward learning (such as the temporal difference [TD] model) do not distinguish between the updating of expectations in response to reward cues and outcomes. Thus, correlating a single error term with neural activation assumes recruitment of similar neural substrates at each update.

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Journal Articles

Dysfunction of Reward Processing Correlates with Alcohol Craving in Detoxified Alcoholics

J Wrase, F Schlagenhauf, T Kienast, T Wustenberg, F Bermpohl, T Kahnt, A Beck, A Strohle, G Juckel, Brian Knutson, A Heinz
Neuroimage, 2007 April 2, 2007

Objective: Alcohol dependence may be associated with dysfunction of mesolimbic circuitry, such that anticipation of nonalcoholic reward fails to activate the ventral striatum, while alcohol-associated cues continue to activate this region. This may lead alcoholics to crave the pharmacological effects of alcohol to a greater extent than other conventional rewards. The present study investigated neural mechanisms underlying these phenomena.

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Journal Articles

Ventral Striatal Hyporesponsiveness During Reward Anticipation in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

A Scheres, MP MIlham, Brian Knutson, FX Castellanos
Biological Psychiatry, 2007 March 1, 2007

Background: Although abnormalities in reward processing have been proposed to underlie attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this link has not been tested explicitly with neural probes.

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Journal Articles

Offline Testing of the ATHENA Hypertension Decision Support System Knowledge Base to Improve the Accuracy of Recommendations

Susana B. Martins, S Lai, S Tu, R Shankar, SN Hastings, Brian Knutson, N DiPilla, Mary K. Goldstein, B. B. Hoffman
AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings, 2006 December 31, 2006

ATHENA-HTN is a clinical decision support system (CDSS) that delivers guideline-based patient-specific recommendations about hypertension management at the time of clinical decision-making. The ATHENA-HTN knowledge is stored in a knowledge-base (KB). Changes in best-practice recommendations require updates to the KB. We describe a method of offline testing to evaluate the accuracy of recommendations generated from the KB. A physician reviewed 100 test cases and made drug recommendations based on guidelines and the "Rules" (descriptions of encoded knowledge).

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Journal Articles

Reward-Motivated Learning: Mesolimbic Activation Precedes Memory Formation

RA Adcock, A Thangavel, S Whitfield-Gabrieli, Brian Knutson, GD Gabrieli
Neuron, 2006 May 4, 2006

We examined anticipatory mechanisms of reward-motivated memory formation using event-related FMRI. In a monetary incentive encoding task, cues signaled high- or low-value reward for memorizing an upcoming scene. When tested 24 hr postscan, subjects were significantly more likely to remember scenes that followed cues for high-value rather than low-value reward. A monetary incentive delay task independently localized regions responsive to reward anticipation.

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Journal Articles

Neural basis of financial risk taking, the

CM Kuhnen, Brian Knutson
Neuron, 2005 September 1, 2005

Investors systematically deviate from rationality when making financial decisions, yet the mechanisms responsible for these deviations have not been identified. Using event-related fMRI, we examined whether anticipatory neural activity would predict optimal and suboptimal choices in a financial decision-making task. We characterized two types of deviations from the optimal investment strategy of a rational risk-neutral agent as risk-seeking mistakes and risk-aversion mistakes.

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Journal Articles

Functional magnetic resonance imaging of reward prediction

Brian Knutson, JC Cooper
Current Opinion in Neurology, 2005 August 1, 2005

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Technical and conceptual advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging now allow visualization of real-time changes in oxygenation of deep subcortical regions, leading to rapid advances in scientific characterization of the neural substrates that underlie reward prediction in humans.

RECENT FINDINGS: Neuroimaging research over the past year has focused on determining the necessary neural substrates for reward prediction.

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Journal Articles

Distributed neural representation of expected value

Brian Knutson, J Taylor, M Kaufman, R Peterson, G Glover
Journal of Neuroscience, 2005 May 11, 2005

Anticipated reward magnitude and probability comprise dual components of expected value (EV), a cornerstone of economic and psychological theory. However, the neural mechanisms that compute EV have not been characterized. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined neural activation as subjects anticipated monetary gains and losses that varied in magnitude and probability.

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