The reported efficacy of maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis and systematic review to estimate the clinical efficacy and safety of MMA in treating OSA. We searched Medline and bibliographies of retrieved articles, with no language restriction. We used meta-analytic methods to pool surgical outcomes. Fifty-three reports describing 22 unique patient populations (627 adults with OSA) met inclusion criteria. Additionally, 27 reports provided individual data on 320 OSA subjects. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) decreased from 63.9/h to 9.5/h (p<0.001) following surgery. Using a random-effects model, the pooled surgical success and cure (AHI <5) rates were 86.0% and 43.2%, respectively. Younger age, lower preoperative weight and AHI, and greater degree of maxillary advancement were predictive of increased surgical success. The major and minor complication rates were 1.0% and 3.1%, respectively. No postoperative deaths were reported. Most subjects reported satisfaction after MMA with improvements in quality of life measures and most OSA symptomatology. We conclude that MMA is a safe and highly effective treatment for OSA.