A Randomized Trial of Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease

A Randomized Trial of Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease

Background Optimal treatment for patients with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and stable ischemic heart disease has not been established.

Methods We randomly assigned 2368 patients with both type 2 diabetes and heart disease to undergo either prompt revascularization with intensive medical therapy or intensive medical therapy alone and to undergo either insulin-sensitization or insulin-provision therapy. Primary end points were the rate of death and a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (major cardiovascular events). Randomization was stratified according to the choice of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) as the more appropriate intervention.

Results At 5 years, rates of survival did not differ significantly between the revascularization group (88.3%) and the medical-therapy group (87.8%, P=0.97) or between the insulin-sensitization group (88.2%) and the insulin-provision group (87.9%, P=0.89). The rates of freedom from major cardiovascular events also did not differ significantly among the groups: 77.2% in the revascularization group and 75.9% in the medical-treatment group (P=0.70) and 77.7% in the insulin-sensitization group and 75.4% in the insulin-provision group (P=0.13). In the PCI stratum, there was no significant difference in primary end points between the revascularization group and the medical-therapy group. In the CABG stratum, the rate of major cardiovascular events was significantly lower in the revascularization group (22.4%) than in the medical-therapy group (30.5%, P=0.01; P=0.002 for interaction between stratum and study group). Adverse events and serious adverse events were generally similar among the groups, although severe hypoglycemia was more frequent in the insulin-provision group (9.2%) than in the insulin-sensitization group (5.9%, P=0.003).

Conclusions Overall, there was no significant difference in the rates of death and major cardiovascular events between patients undergoing prompt revascularization and those undergoing medical therapy or between strategies of insulin sensitization and insulin provision. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00006305.)

The members of the writing group (Robert L. Frye, M.D., Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Phyllis August, M.D., M.P.H., New York Hospital Queens, Queens, NY; Maria Mori Brooks, Ph.D., Regina M. Hardison, M.S., Sheryl F. Kelsey, Ph.D., Joan M. MacGregor, M.S., and Trevor J. Orchard, M.B., B.Ch., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh; Bernard R. Chaitman, M.D., Saint Louis University, St. Louis; Saul M. Genuth, M.D., Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland; Suzanne H. Goldberg, R.N., M.S.N., National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD; Mark A. Hlatky, M.D., Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA; Teresa L.Z. Jones, M.D., National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD; Mark E. Molitch, M.D., Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago; Richard W. Nesto, M.D., Lahey Clinic Medical Center, Burlington, MA; Edward Y. Sako, M.D., Ph.D., University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio; and Burton E. Sobel, M.D., University of Vermont, Burlington) assume responsibility for the overall content and integrity of the article.